Esperanto

La lingvo internacia

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What is Esperanto?

Esperanto is an artificially constructed language created by Dr. L. L. Zamenhof in 1887. It was designed to be a universal second language that is easy to learn and fosters international communication and understanding. Esperanto has extremely simple grammar (devoid of any irregular rules inherent to natural languages), intuitive phonetic spelling, and a vocabulary derived primarily from Romance, Germanic, and Slavic languages. Zamenhof intended Esperanto to serve as a neutral means of communication, transcending national boundaries and fostering peace and cooperation among people of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Why learn Esperanto?

Learning Esperanto offers an array of benefits, including its simplicity, facilitating international communication, fostering cultural exchange, stimulating intellectual growth, embodying ideals of global unity, and providing practical applications in travel and niche communities. Its regular grammar and phonetics make it easier to learn compared to many natural languages, while its neutrality allows speakers of different native languages to connect seamlessly. Engaging with Esperanto can thus enrich individuals' lives, broaden their perspectives, and contribute to a more interconnected world. The estimated number of Esperanto speakers worldwide is 2 million.

How long does Esperanto take to learn?

Esperanto is often considered the easiest language to learn and allows learners to become proficient in a fraction of the time it would take to learn other languages. Esperanto typically requires about 150 hours of study to reach conversational proficiency, making it much quicker to learn compared to many natural languages. For example, Spanish generally takes around 700 hours due to its straightforward grammar, while German requires about 900 hours because of its complex word formation. Russian and Hindi each take approximately 1,100 hours to learn, reflecting their grammatical and script challenges. In contrast, Mandarin Chinese and Arabic can each require around 2,200 hours due to their tonal nature, complex writing systems, and intricate grammar.

The 16 grammar rules of Esperanto

  1. Alphabet: Esperanto uses 28 letters, each with a single, consistent sound. There are no silent letters or multiple pronunciations.
  2. Nouns: All nouns end in "-o" and form the plural by adding "-j" (e.g., "libro" – book, "libroj" – books).
  3. Adjectives: All adjectives end in "-a" and agree in number with the nouns they describe (e.g., "bona libro" – good book, "bonaj libroj" – good books).
  4. Definite Article: There is only one definite article, "la," which does not change with gender, number, or case.
  5. Verbs: Verbs do not conjugate for person or number. They have fixed endings for tense: "-as" for present, "-is" for past, "-os" for future, "-u" for imperative, and "-us" for conditional.
  6. Adverbs: Adverbs end in "-e" (e.g., "rapide" – quickly).
  7. Plural: Plural nouns and adjectives add "-j" (e.g., "bonaj libroj" – good books).
  8. Accusative Case: The direct object of a verb ends in "-n" (e.g., "Mi legas libron" – I read a book).
  9. Prepositions: Prepositions govern the nominative case (e.g., "en la domo" – in the house).
  10. Compound Words: Compound words are formed by simply joining roots together (e.g., "skribtablo" – writing desk).
  11. Pronouns: Pronouns are consistent and do not change form (e.g., "mi" – I, "vi" – you, "li" – he, "ŝi" – she, "ĝi" – it, "ni" – we, "ili" – they).
  12. Negation: Negation is formed by placing "ne" before the verb (e.g., "Mi ne komprenas" – I do not understand).
  13. Questions: Yes/no questions are formed by placing "ĉu" at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., "Ĉu vi parolas Esperanton?" – Do you speak Esperanto?).
  14. Possessives: Possessive pronouns are formed by adding "-a" to the personal pronouns (e.g., "mia" – my, "via" – your).
  15. Comparatives and Superlatives: Comparatives are formed with "pli" (more) and superlatives with "plej" (most) (e.g., "pli bona" – better, "plej bona" – best).
  16. No Irregularities: There are no exceptions or irregular forms in the grammar.

Basic Esperanto phrases

Resources to learn Esperanto

Lernu

https://lernu.net

Esperanto in 12 lessons

https://esperanto12.net/en/

Wikibooks Esperanto Textbook

https://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Esperanto/Contents

Esperanto dot Net

https://esperanto.net

Duolingo

https://www.duolingo.com/enroll/eo/en/Learn-Esperanto

Anki

Spaced Repition System

Beginner deck
Intermediate deck
How Anki works

iTalki

Online Tutor

https://www.italki.com/en/teachers/esperanto

Reta Vortaro

(Esperanto <-> English Dictionary)

https://reta-vortaro.de/

Tuja Vortaro

(Esperanto <-> English Dictionary)

https://www.tujavortaro.net

Plena Ilustrita Vortaro de Esperanto (PIV)

Official Esperanto Dictionary

https://vortaro.net/

Plena Manlibro de Esperanta Gramatiko (PMEG)

Complete Manual of Esperanto Grammar

https://bertilow.com/pmeg/
PDF

Google Translate

https://translate.google.com/?hl=en&sl=en&tl=eo&op=translate

Stack Exchange

https://esperanto.stackexchange.com

Reddit

https://www.reddit.com/r/Esperanto/

Complete Esperanto by Tim Owen

Amazon

Revuo Esperanto

Esperanto Magazine

https://revuoesperanto.org/

Tubaro

Esperanto YouTube

https://tubaro.aperu.net

Kurso de Esperanto

http://www.kurso.com.br/index.php?en

Universal Esperanto Association

https://uea.org/info

Individuals' Websites

https://loganhall.net/eo/faq-en.html
http://esperanto.davidgsimpson.com

Esperanto Brochure (Printable)

View

Wikipedia Articles

Esperanto

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanto

L. L. Zamenhof

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L._L._Zamenhof

History of Esperanto

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Esperanto

Esperanto culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanto_culture

La Espero

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Espero

Books

Unua Libro

First published in Russian on July 26 1887, the publication of Unua Libro marks the formal beginning of the Esperanto movement

PDF

Fundamento de Esperanto

PDF

What is Esperanto?

PDF

Complete Esperanto

PDF

Jen Nia Mondo 1

PDF

Jen Nia Mondo 2

PDF

Vojaĝo en Esperanto-lando

PDF

Videos

Esperanto Explained

Esperanto Grammar in 6 Minutes

How Esperanto Sounds (Native Speaker)

Zamenhofo parolas Esperanton en jaro 1909 Barcelona

La Espero

Anthem of Esperanto

Music

Lasu Min Plukanti

Tiel La Mondo Iras

Podcasts

Usone Persone

https://podbay.fm/p/usone-persone

Kern Punkto

https://kern.punkto.info/arkivo/

Practice with Others

Telegram Group

https://telegramo.org

Reddit Group

https://www.reddit.com/r/Esperanto/

Reddit Discord Server

https://discord.gg/esperanto

Eventa Servo

Online meetings in Esperanto

https://eventaservo.org

Software for macOS

Esperanta Klavaro

A macOS keyboard application for easily typing the Esperanto diacritic letters: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, and ŭ

https://github.com/nhershy/EsperantaKlavaroMacOS

Esperanto Spellcheck

A global Esperanto spellchecker for macOS

https://github.com/nhershy/EsperantoSpellcheckMacOS

Personal Articles

An AI analysis of Esperanto etymology

https://medium.com/@nhershy/an-ai-analysis-of-esperanto-etymology-b1b51a15c108